Bones and joint regeneration with the help of stem cells

“Fetal stem cells are showing potential for treating diseases from nearly every organ system of the body. Low to non-existent immunoreactivity of fetal stem cells and absence of tumor formation make fetal stem cells ideal candidates for allotransplantation in regenerative therapies.”

Dario O. Fauza, MD, PhD

Mahmud Bani, PhD

Book "Fetal stem cells in regenerative medicine"

According to the developmental stage of the organism stem cells are classified as follows

  • Embryonic stem cells
  • Fetal stem cells
  • Adult stem cells

Embryonic stem cells are those cells that are isolated from the blastocyst during the second week of embryonic development.

Fetal stem cells are stem cells that are isolated from the fetus during the period of 8-20 weeks of the development.

Adult stem cells are cells that are located in different tissues of the adult body.

Fetal stem cells are at the more advanced developmental stage in comparison with the embryonic stem cells. Laboratory experiments showed that transplantation of the embryonic stem cells lead to the tumor formation in the host organism while experiments with transplantation of the fetal stem cells did not show tumor formation.  Thus, fetal stem cell considered to be much more safe than embryonic stem cells and are allowed to be used for the treatment of the wide range of diseases. In comparison with adult stem cells, fetal stem cells show better engraftment, lower immunogenicity and greater therapeutic potential. Fetal stem cells are isolated during developmental period when primary tissues are already formed. This provide a possibility to separate multiple types of tissue-specific fetal stem cells that could be used for the treatment of corresponding impaired organs of the patient (organ-specific therapy). Infinity Clinic manage cryobank with large diversity of organ-specific fetal stem cells, such as neural fetal stem cells, hemopoietic fetal stem cells, liver fetal stem cells, fetal stem cells of the lungs, heart, pancreas and more. This represent important advantage over therapeutic application of the adult mesenchymal stem cells that are used in the majority stem cell clinic as monotherapy. Under physiologic conditions adult mesenchymal stem cells differentiate mostly into the cells of the bone’s cartilages and fat tissue while their potential for the treatment of another tissues is limited. In contract to this, certain organ specific fetal stem cells could be used for the treatment of all organs of the body.


Embryonic stem cells

Fetal stem cells

Adult stem cells

Therapeutic potential

Not allowed for therapeutic applications



Number of cells that could be acquired


more than 106

Less than 104

Proliferation in the laboratory before administration


Not required


Differentiation in the laboratory before administration


Not required

In certain cases required

Efficiency for the treatment of genetic diseases



Not efficient





Fetal stem cells are able to migrate into the damaged tissues of the body and promote regeneration. Damage of the tissues induce local production of the variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, some of which stimulate expression of special types of the molecules of intercellular adhesion on the surface of endothelial cells lining the walls of the blood vessels in the damaged area. Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecules expression on the surface of endothelial cells induced by inflammation lead to the arrest of the stem cells within the vasculature of a damaged tissues, followed by transmigration across the endothelium. Upon arrival into the damaged tissues, fetal stem cells could give rise to the progenitor cells that will differentiate into specialized cells of corresponding organs. Thus, efficiency of fetal stem cell treatment caused by the replacement of damaged and dying cells of the body by the progeny of fetal stem cells that arrived into the impaired tissues. At the same time, fetal stem cells produce and release variety of immunomodulatory cytokines, angiogenic and trophic factors that reduce inflammation and support regeneration of the damaged organs. Also, over the recent years it was revealed that stem cells release extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, carrying proteins and nucleic acids that support healing of injured tissues.

Thus organ-specific fetal stem cell treatment methods that were developed in joint effort of the scientists and doctors of the Infinity Clinic stimulate regeneration of corresponding organs at the cellular level due to replacement of damaged and dying cells, and, at the same time, lead to the improvements at the level of the whole organism due to biologically active substances that are produced and released by fetal stem cells.

Fetal stem cells could migrate into the fractured boned and damaged joints where they give rise to new cells of the cartilage tissues and bones. Additionally, these cells release trophic factors that increase vascularization and stimulate regeneration of the damaged tissues of the patient. Specialists of the Infinity Clinic have developed method of treatment of sport injuries and diseases of the joints based on the administration of fetal stem cells of bones and cartilages in combination with hematopoietic fetal stem cells

Figure 1. X-ray image 1 (left), we see knee joint arthrosis. X-ray image 2 (right) performed 9 months later, after two courses of stem cell therapy shows the significant improvement.  The patient returned to his professional sport.

Bones and joint regeneration with the help of stem cells
Bones and joint regeneration with the help of stem cells400600
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